Development and Partnership in Action (DPA)
Terms of Reference (ToR)
Making Right to Food (R2F) gender work visible and enhancing gender in action in the R2F project
DPA is one of other partner organisations in Cambodia that has received funding support from Oxfam RtF Project and the project was started in April, 2016. DPA had implemented RtF project in five target provinces (Kampong Thom, Preah Vihear, Stung Treng, Rattanakiri and Mondulkiri) within the first three years in phase I. To date is the fourth year that DPA has implemented the project. In this second phase, DPA RtF project targets only two provinces called Kampong Thom and Preah Vihear aiming to improve government policies, private sector policy and to increase citizen voice in which gender is a crossing cutting across the three outcomes. Through interventions of the project, RtF team noticed the improvement of community understanding on relevant laws, advocacy strategies, document compilation and networking. There’s an increase of women and men engagement in community development work especially land and natural resource management. However, we have observed women had faced barriers which limit her leadership optimal in engaging with land and natural management. This means particular measure should be undertaken to address those barriers and make women more visible in land and natural resource management.
During the project reflection process in June 2018, all countries involved in the R2F discussed and agreed on an overarching and common objective on Gender. Starting point were the words of the outcome that are related to gender, namely “particularly women”. The group unpacked these words by discussing the question: What does “particularly women” mean to us?
We agreed that the following statement captures our R2F gender ambition: Particularly women means … “To have a specific outcome that ensures women’s empowerment, therefore they are able to equally participate in decision making spaces and to influence decision-making processes, especially regarding the issues R2F is focusing on.”
Additionally, the exchange among countries showed that there is quite a lot of experiences being developed that contributes to achieving this objective. However, we have not been able to consistently collect, analyze and share these experiences. Further, we realized that this systematization of experiences could be the base for creating a joint, coherent narrative. This would show how we are actually working towards our gender ambition.
Therefore, we decided that we will develop a common initiative, which later was called “gender visible/gender in action, aim at capturing the rich diversity of gender related-approaches and activities that had been implemented in R2F projects in Cambodia. At the same time we will have the opportunity to give a final touch to specific actions that will boost our gender dimension in the projects.
II. Objective and scope:
The objective of this collective initiative is to capture and systematize cases/experiences representing and show-casing gender work which has happen or is happening in countries implementing R2F projects, from which a common R2F narrative on gender will be drawn.
Starting point will be a general mapping out of the experiences, according to a common conceptual framework, that will serve as reference for the overall analysis. Countries in consultation with the gender advisor in The Hague might prioritize the experiences (1-max. 3) that are the most suitable for in depth analysis.
Analysis of cases done by countries together with partners and consultant.
To streamline definitions, a brief conceptual framework on Women’s Empowerment is included in Annex 1.
- Steps and deliverables:
The activities have to be conducive to achieve the general aim of this common effort. We envision the following steps, activities and deliverables:
- Mapping out gender activities
It consists on a general overview of What have been done in terms of gender integration in the R2F project. This will be done by the revision of reports and short consultation with partners if need be. The deliverable will be a short gender mapping to be shared with the R2F gender advisor in the Hague. Consultation of a gender expert is advised to make sure the conceptual framework is applied for the proper classification of the different experiences.
- Cases Prioritization
Countries will define which experiences are more suitable and interesting for in depth analysis (1 up to max. 3 per country) Criteria for the prioritization will be discussed and agreed upon.
- Collection and analysis of country case(s)
The experiences will be collected and analyzed. The use of participatory methodologies is advised. The quality of the analysis is crucial for the success of the final common narrative, thus it is expected the same conceptual framework to be used by all countries. This basic framework is presented in annex 1. A short written report is the expected deliverable. Minimum content of the written report should be consistent across countries, thus guidelines will be developed.
- Production of visual materials:
Produce good quality pictures of the case(s), short videos (1-5 mins). For all visual materials Oxfam and DPA rules and policies apply
- Gender in action activities:
To organized and facilitate reflection cases collected and how to applied/embedded gender in daily work training workshop. Develop minimum women/gender requirement checklist for future monitoring in RtF Project and Tips for development of Policy Ask embedded gender.
Commencement date: August 2019
Completion Date: November 2019
IV. Job Requirements
This assignment required a team of consultants with skill set on gender in deep analysis and visual production with quality equipment as following:
- At least 5 years minimum experienced on gender analysis using gender framework of transformative leadership and other tools
- Experienced in developing communication materials (short video and photo portraits)
- Experienced and well understanding about women issues at community level
- Competency and sound understanding of land and natural resources governance and role of women in NRM
- Demonstrated high level proficiency in writing and concise analysis and in developing reports that include visual representation of data and findings.
- Expertise on Participatory action research methodology
- Ability to demonstrate sensitivity to cultural differences and gender issues, as well as the commitment to equal opportunities.
- Ability to demonstrate an openness and willingness to learn about the application of gender/gender mainstreaming, women’s rights, and diversity for all aspects of development work.
VI. How to apply
The announcement of the consultancy opportunity shall be closed on 22 August 2019. Those interested applicants must provide a written proposal included a clear and detailed methodology for the collection, analysis and reporting of data; roles and responsibility; qualifications and experiences (including CV of consultant); budget and work plan for the assessment study; and previous assessment reports.
Annex 1: Conceptual Framework
As we are striving for a collective product using the cases of different countries as input, we need a common language and understanding to guide the analysis. These definitions are useful for this purpose. They are used by the Oxfam community.
Gender equality the situation in which women and men enjoy the same status and have equal conditions, responsibilities and opportunities for realising their full human rights and potential and can benefit equally from the results – regardless of being born male or female. Gender equality encompasses equality in social relations and equal access to, and control over, resources by women and men. . The reality shows that this is not the case in many societies. Gender inequality derives from social and cultural socialization processes. In patriarchal societies, women and girls are classified (not always consciously) as less valuable, less strong, economically less attractive, not suitable for public leadership roles, needing protection and control, etc. Other aspects of identity, such as (dis)ability, sexual orientation, HIV status, race, class, caste and religion interrelate with people’s biological sex and this ca result in multiple forms of discrimination. For Oxfam, this patriarchal, exclusive ideology is the main cause of the violation of the women’s rights to equality.
The process to achieve gender equality requires first women’s empowerment. Women’s empowerment can be understood as the process whereby women’s lives are transformed from a situation where they have limited power over self-determination and participation in the public sphere as a consequence of gender barriers, to a situation where their power is equal to that of men. Thus, a good indicator of women empowerment is when barriers have been lifted or have been reduced, so that women can take control over the different dimensions of their lives; Women’s economic, social, personal and political empowerment is interconnected; positive change in one dimension of women’s lives is unsustainable without progress in the others. Typical interventions are those actions that challenge the structural barriers that keep women from achieving all the dimensions of women’s empowerment.
One approach taken towards women empowerment consist in advancing women’s economic and political participation. This entails interventions that facilitate the effective participation of women in decision making spaces. Other interventions are geared towards increasing the access and control over productive resources such as land. Evidence suggests that increasing the participation of women in politics and public spaces makes a significant difference for women and society. The visibility of women in decision-making processes encourages greater political engagement and mobilization of a broad spectrum of women. It helps to shift people’s perceptions of what a leader is, and challenge the idea that only men can be/are leaders. It can also give women the confidence to apply for positions of public leadership.
Transformative leadership is a social change strategy which focuses on providing an enabling environment for the actualisation of the leadership potential of individuals; influencing others to bring about fundamental change and facilitating the empowerment of others by challenging and transforming structures and ideologies that justify and perpetuate gender inequality and power imbalances. Transformative Leadership is a more encompassing approach that goes beyond the traditional focus on increasing women’s political and economic participation. It seeks to ensure that leadership actions contribute to equity, human rights, justice and peace. Transformative leadership mobilizes and respects all people, and facilitates the space for the led to become leaders.
Working to promote women’s leadership in decision-making processes may be ineffective if we ignore the broader structural context in which this is taking place, and the relevant informal sources of power and decision-making that are active in that context. This is because conventional leadership is often situated in existing power structures. Globally, decision-making spaces are still male dominated. Leaders who become part of these structures are encouraged to model prevailing power behaviors which may compromise on their principles, and are rewarded for doing so. Merely ensuring that women hold formal positions of power is therefore not enough.
Assessing gender integration in our R2F work
We propose the following scale to estimate the extent to which gender have been integrated in our R2F projects in regards to our gender objective: “To have a specific approach and/or outcome that ensures women’s empowerment, therefore they are able to equally participate in decision making spaces and influences decision-making processes, especially regarding the issues R2F is focusing on”;
Using this scale will help us to better understand where we are in terms of fulfilling our gender ambition. The lessons gained will help us to identify future actions that strive toward gender transformative programming.
Gender Blind: The project /intervention/ fails to recognize that the roles and responsibilities of women/girls and men/boys are ascribed to, or imposed upon them in specific social, cultural, economic and political contexts. Gender-blind projects, programmes and policies do not take into account these different roles and diverse needs. They therefore maintain status quo and will not help transform the unequal structure of gender relations.
Gender Sensitive: The project/intervention/ acknowledges but it doesn’t address gender inequalities. Ability to view society from the perspective of gender roles and understand how this has affected women’s needs in comparison to the needs of men. e.g.: promoting women’s awareness and voice around their land rights, for example through radio programmes; focusing on addressing gender inequalities at the household level through, for example, training.
Gender Specific: The project/intervention/ acknowledges gender norms and considers women’s and men’s specific needs. Understand and considerate social and cultural factors underlaying sex-based discrimination and, use specific tools to provide women and girls more opportunities for their participation in social, political and economic processes and the impact of planned activities on women and men. E.g.: supporting women to open bank accounts and access to credit; facilitating participation of rural women and women’s groups in public policy discussions, granting access to governmental support programs by issuing credentials specifically for women otherwise excluded.
Gender Transformative: The project/intervention/ addresses the causes of gender inequalities and works to transform harmful gender roles, norms and relations. Gender transformative means that promoting gender equality—the shared control of resources and decision-making—and women’s empowerment are central to an intervention. Gender transformative programming generally entails moving beyond the individual level to also address the interpersonal, socio-cultural, structural and community factors that influence gender-related attitudes and behaviours. For example, women’s individual land ownership as an indicator of agency does not capture the structural and relational dimensions of land access and ownership. Even where progressive or gender-equitable laws exist, women’s de facto ability to realize their rights and exercise control over land is determined by social norms, discriminatory institutions and local customs. Without addressing and challenging those social norms and working towards structural change of institutions and customs, the change we achieve is not transformational and therefore sustainable.
Links to existing Oxfam documents that have inspired this conceptual framework:
- Oxfam’s Conceptual Framework on Women’s Economic Empowerment:
- Transformative Leadership for Women’s Rights: An Oxfam Guide:
- Oxfam Guide to Feminist Influencing: